четверг, 20 февраля 2014 г.

Dual and Cooperative Federalism

Statistical Abstract of the US, State Rankings
The U.S. Census Bureau maintains one of the largest collections of data about social and economic conditions in the United States as a whole, and all of the nation's 50 states. Each year the Bureau publishes a summary of this information in the Statistical Abstract of the United States. You can link to an electronic version of this publication at the Bureau's web site,
http://www.census.gov/. Go the U.S. Census Bureau's web site and locate the Statistical Abstract. From there, identify the collection of what the Bureau calls "State Rankings," and study in particular the following three measures: (1) Infant mortality rate, (2) Violent crime rate, and (3) Persons below the poverty level.
How might a conservative use this information to argue for a system of "dual federalism"? How might a liberal use this information to argue for a system of "cooperative federalism"?

3 комментария:

  1. The important criterion reflecting features of federalism in terms of types of links is the nature and degree of interconnectedness and interdependence of subjects of federal relations in the system of separation of powers. Given this criterion, there are two types of federalism: the dual and cooperative. Each type of federalism has its supporters that using different data, try to show that their type of federalism is the best. So, for example, the conservatives support the dual federalism, the concept of “dual federalism” based on the fact that the both levels of the federation – federal and regional – have their own sources of legitimation of power and authority, and each level has a considerable autonomy. Referring to data “State Rankings”, they say that the rate of infant mortality, poverty and violent crime is more or less stability. Therefore, they can claim that the regions having a certain economic and legal independence, effectively and quickly can reach a high social-economic level of the population living in it. In contrast to this point of view, the liberals adhere to “cooperative federalism” based on the development of a partnership between the Federation and its subjects and increasing their cooperation. Cooperative federalism is realized through different ways of cooperation. For this purpose, the regional associations of groups of subjects of the federation and special federal provincial governments are created that have a deliberative body, and whose purpose is to reduce friction between the center and the regions, to search for compromise. According to data “State Rankings”, there is a difference in the rate of infant mortality, violent crime and poverty between states, especially it is visibly between the North and the South. Consequently, liberals pay attention to this difference and say about the necessity to submit positions of the center and subjects in solving problems, to work out a strategy to prevent conflicts and to make standard of life equal in all states.

  2. Two opposite types of federalism can interpret the date of Statistical Abstract of the US, State Rankings of the US Census Bureau in favor of both sides, dual and cooperative.
    Cooperative federalism is a political concept affirming the principle of cooperating national, state and local governments to tackle issues together. As a result, all three levels of government are simultaneously independent and interdependent within the overlapping spheres of power and operation. Analyzing the data liberals would notice that such rates of the poverty, infant mortality and violent crimes are typical and stable. The supporters of cooperative federalism would offer to find a compromise between both governments. To solve local problems is to interact cooperatively and collectively, rather than making policies separately.
    As for dual federalism, there is the separation of the federal and state powers that operate in its own spheres, in which each one is respectively sovereign. Adhering to this type of federalism conservatives would say about the incapacity of the federal government to see what the spheres demand more financing. That’s why the state and local administrations would solve better the problems with infant mortality, violent crimes and the poverty. Therefore, they need to be given more authorities to operate.

  3. Each type of federalism has supporters who use different arguments trying to show the best sides of it. Conservatives support dual federalism and state that both levels of the federation, state and national, has its' authoruty. So, they can say that rates (in our case, infant mortality, violent crimes and poverty) slightly change and are almost stable. That would be their argument in favour of dual federalism. However, liberals stick to the "cooperative federalism" point of view and can blame conservatives that they see only general situation. Because those rates vary depending on the states. Although, all states has defferent needs, so that is why Federation and it's subjects should cooperate.